Rogarsetic Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection Bottle (Veterinary Use Only)

Ketamine Hydrochloride

Ketamine is an anasthetic. Its chemical name is (+-)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-methylaminocyclohexanone hydrochloride....Ketamine hydrochloride occurs as a white crystalline powder with a slight characteristic odor. Ketamine hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and methanonl. It is soluble in ethanol.

Excerpt from Xu and Madden's Analytical Methods for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Toxicology, (2011, p. 266).

Ketamine is a rapid-acting dissociative anasthetic first approved 40 years ago for animals and humans, and in continuous use since. At anasthetic doses (several mg/kg) it produces a cataleptic state with nystagmus and intact corneal and light reflexes, and maintenance of ventilatory drive as well as blood pressure even in hypopolemic subjects. The latter properties make it an attractive alternative to morphine or other opioids in civilian emergency, mass casualty, or military settings....Ketamine, a non-opioid, inhibits the excitatory effects of the endogenous excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter glutamate upon the NMDA receptor. The NMDA receptor plays a key role in the development of sensitization, hyperalgesia, and tolerance to the analgesic effects of opioids, as well as in certain preclinical models of neurotoxicity....

Efficacy and Safety

At anasthetic or analgesic doses, ketamine has a wide margin of safety and has little impact upon cardiovascular and respiratory function even in physiologically compromised populations. Preservation, even stimulation, of blood pressure and pulse rate are seen with high doses of ketamine; such changes are minimal when very low doses are given. This pattern contrasts with the hypotension and/or bradycardia often seen with exposure to volatile anesthetizing agents, barbiturates, benzidiazepines, and opioids. Ketamine is effective for alleviating pain refractory to opioids, such as acute or chronic neuropathic pain, and compared with opioids its use is less likely to be associated with issues of tolerance and physica dependence. The clinical literature on multimodal analgesia indicates that besides NSAIDS, only ketamine is proven to decrease pain intensity while simultaneously reducing the requirement for opioids sufficiently to decrease opioid-related side effects.

Excerpt from Sinatra, Jahr, & Watkins-Pitchford's (Eds.), The Essence of Analgesia and Analgesics, (2011, pp. 440-442).

(Herb Museum Note: The last sentence above, "...only ketamine is proven to decrease pain intensity while simultaneously reducing the requirement for opioids sufficiently to decrease opioid-related side effects." is actually inaccurate. Cannabis and cannabinoids also reduce pain, especially neuropathic pain, and the need for the use of opioids, as well as the negative side-effects associated with opioids. In fact, the Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids (CCIC) in 2010 held national educational seminars for physicians, accredited by the College of Family Physicians of Canada, specifically about the synergy of opioids and cannabinoids in pain management. The ability to reduce the use of opioids is called opioid sparing. For confirmation of this information, see CCIC, and Accredited Cannabinoid Education (ACE) III.

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