Panaeolus cyanescens, also known as Copelandia cyanescens

Cap: 1.5-3.5 (4) cm broad. Hemispherical to campanulate to convex at maturity. Margin initially tranlucent when moist. Incurved in young specimens. Light brown in color becoming pallid gray to whitish with cap craking in age. Bruising blue when handled.

Gills: Adnexed, close and thin, mottled.

Stem: (65) 85-115 mm long by 1.5-3 mm thick. Equal to bulbous at the base with fine fibrillose flecks, partial veil absent. Bluing intensely when damaged bfrom human handling.

Spores: 12-14 X 7.5-11 mics.

Sporeprint: Black.

Habitat: Growing scattered to gregarious in manure heaps in the tropics and neotropics of both hemispheres.

Distribution: Cosmopolitan, In dung in fields and pastures in Hawaii, Louisiana and Florida (United States); Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia (South America); The Philippines, Eastern Australia, India, Bali, Southeast Asia and other similar locations.

Season: During and after heavy rains.

Dosage: 7 to 10 fresh mushrooms and from 1-2 grams dried.

Comment: Copelandia species have a cosmopolitan distribution and are known to occur in the tropics of both hemispheres. The species was originally reported and described from Sri Lanka by Berkeley and Broome in 1871 as Agaricus cyanescens. A few years later it was identified from the Philippines as Copelandia papilionacea by Bresadola (1881-92). Other worldwide locations include, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Samoa, Hawai'i, various areas of North America (including Oregon, California, and Florida), Jamaica, Mexico, various areas of Central America and South America (including Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru), Madagascar, France, and Italy. There are at least 8 binomials used for this mushroom which represent 8 different species of Copelandia mushrooms, of which Copelanida cyanescens is the primary object. Although this is a manured mushroom and Paul Stamets wrote that this species has been observed in horse manure from Florida and claimed to have found specimens growing in Tenino, Washington. The author of this guide has never collected this species in fields where horses dominate the pastures. I have only found this growing in gaur, cow, and buffalo manure and in manured soils at pasturelands and rice paddies and fertilized manured soil patches.

Bluing Copelandia cyanescens image and text from John Allen's comprehensive website, Mushrooom John, Copelandia cyanescens

Other images from Mycotopia

Copelandia cyanescens in dung.jpg
Copelandia cyanescens.jpg
Natural bluing of Copelandia cyanescens from Ban Nathon, Koh Samui.jpg
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