Cannatole with Morphine

Cannabis and Pain Treatment

"Cannabis Indica, or Indian Hemp, is alleged to be one of the most ancient medicinal substances and Oriental luxuries on record, and was resorted to by the voluptuary for the production of pleasure, and by the valetudinarian for the palliation of pain... Dr. Simpson says the anodyne, ecstatic and anaesthetic [sic] effects of Indian hemp, and the various preparations made from it, have long been known in Africa and Asia. He states that "Sir Joseph Banks says it is always taken in Barbary, when it can be procured, by criminals condemned to suffer amputation; and it is said to enable those wretches to bear the rough operations of an unfeeling executioner better than we Europeans can the keen knife of our most skillful surgeons." ... M. Julien lately pointed out to the French Academy an old Chinese work, proving that, 1500 years ago, a preparation of hemp was employed medicinally in China to annul the pain attendant upon cauterization and surgical operations. The wonderful power of endurance of the Hindu devotees, appears to have been sometimes produced by the influence of this powerful drug." - p. 118, "Report of the Ohio State Medical Committee on Cannabis Indica" by Dr. R. R. McMeens in Marijuana: Medical Papers (1973)

"Cannabis has been utilized as an analgesic for centuries. As information regarding its therapeutic potential entered the medical literature in the mid-1800s, its use became more widespread. In the early twentieth century, ,it became increasingly scrutinized for its psychoactive effects and recreational use and was removed from the U.S. Pharmacopoeia in 1942. However, preclinical studies (as opposed to human studies) continued. and numerous neurobehavioral tests confirmed marijuana's analgesic effects. In the 1980's, more research focused on cannabinoid receptors; in the 1990s, the two G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 were discovered. This led to a surge in preclinical and clinical studies to assess the therapeutic potential of cannabis. Preclinical studies elucidated the sites of action of cannabinoids and showed that the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system were all involved. Many of these studies were performed using animal models that also confirmed the analgesic effects of cannabinoids. "- p. 328, "Pain Management" by Dr. M. S. Wallace and Dr. B. Platt in The Pot Book: A Complete Guide to Cannabis (2010)

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Cannatole  with Morphine